Diseases of the Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum: a review
Seung-Hyeon Kim, Biyun Zhao, Kwang-Sik Choi, Jinha Yu, Do-Hyung Kim and Kyungil Park
Department of Aquatic Life Medicine, College of Ocean Science and Technology, Kunsan National University, 558 Daehak-ro, Gunsan 54150, Republic of Korea
The rate of marine pathogen spread is increasing because of the increase in ocean temperatures, transportation, ocean currents, and marine product trade worldwide. In Korean waters, several species of single-celled or metazoan pathogenic organisms have been identified that may hamper aquaculture or international trade of the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum. In this study, we reviewed the different types of pathogenic organisms isolated and reported from Manila clams worldwide. Among these pathogens, the diseases caused by two protozoan parasites, Perkinsus olseni and Marteilia refringens, are listed as OIE notifiable. P. olseni infection in Manila clam causes retarded growth and reproduction and mass mortality of the clam and has been reported in Korea, China, and Japan. M. refringens infection in Manila clams has been reported only once in China, although further information is unavailable. Trematode infections in the Manila clam often result in slow gonad maturation or gonad castration and may result in a decline in recruitment. The introduction of various invasive pathogens via the import of host organisms or discharge of ballast water of commercial shipping vessels may cause various ecological and evolutionary issues in the native ecosystem. Therefore, it is recommended to improve the quarantine methods of imported shellfishes and monitor the commercially important shellfish species in Korean waters to prevent the spread of exotic pathogenic organisms.
  
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