Effects of domoic acid exposure on the immunological parameters in bay scallop Argopecten irradians
Jin Ah Song and Cheol Young Choi
Division of Marine BioScience, National Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan, 49112, Republic of Korea
Domoic acid (DA) is a neurotoxin produced by the diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia. This toxin is particularly problematic for bivalves that are cultured for human consumption. Scallops have especially low metabolic rates and readily accumulate toxins in their tissues. In this study, bay scallop were exposed to three concentrations of DA (20, 40, and 60 ng/mL) for 48 h, and immunological responses were investigated. Immune parameters were evaluated by estimating the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the hemolymph, and peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRP), fibrinogen-related proteins (FREP), and heat shock protein (HSP) 70 mRNAs in the digestive diverticula of bay scallops. Results showed that not only ROS but also PGRP, FREP, and HSP70 mRNA levels were elevated under exposure to high concentrations of DA. However, mRNA expression levels peaked at different times during exposure, with subsequent declines. Our results suggest that exposure to DA induce protein denaturation and damage, and bay scallops have insufficient defense to repair denatured proteins, owing to the toxicity of DA.
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